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Most digital identity systems fail because they try to be all things to all people. They have been plagued since the advent of the world wide web (“www”) because the www was not designed with programming, privacy or security as a requirement; it was designed as a flexible mechanism for exchanging digital documents. As the popularity of the www grew in the 1990’s and beyond, so did the need to find ways of extending the user experience through transmitting data, adding scripting, then later exchanging value across the network.

Value exchange requires secure data exchange of personal information, which in…

This publication has been six years in the making. It began back in 2015 during the euphoric second wave of crypto innovation epitomised by the launch of Ethereum.

At that time it seemed that digital nirvana, or at least comparative serenity, would be reached within in a couple of years. Every week saw yet another whitepaper promising an 18 month road-map to disrupt some critical path of the the known commercial world for the betterment of humanity, whilst simultaneously enriching anyone who was prepared to invest in the latest coin offering.

We are somewhat long-in-the-tooth compared to the champions of…


Making cash work online

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